Environment protection and prevention of marine pollution is wide. It includes combating marine pollution from all range of threat, land –based source, Oil spill, untreated sewage, heavy siltation, nutrient enrichment, invasive species, persistent organic, heavy metals from mines and ship yards, acidification, radioactive substance, marine litter, over fishing and destruction of coastal marine habitats.
SIMA has the responsibility of preventing and responding to marine pollution from vessels. This is covered by the Shipping (Marine Pollution Regulations 2011) and includes (not limited to):
Marine pollution occurs when harmful/noxious pollutants from shipping such as oil (benzenes), chemicals (marine environmental toxins or environmental harmful substances), garbage, sewage, emissions (GHGe, PM, VOC, ODS, NOx & SOx) and non-indigenous harmful aquatic organisms or pathogens (NIHAOP) and superseded anti-foulants (TBT) enter into the ocean and have a detrimental impact on marine organisms with potential chronic or ultimately lethal consequences.
Many potentially toxic chemicals adhere to tiny particles e.g. weathered micro-plastics, which are then taken up by plankton and benthic animals, most of which are either deposit or filter feeders. In this way, the toxins are concentrated upward within ocean food chains and ultimately in ourselves in the food we consume. Many particles combine chemically in a manner highly depletive of oxygen, causing estuaries to become anoxic and cause asphyxiation and death of all aquatic species
Toxins can cause a chronic change to tissue matter, biochemistry, behaviour, reproduction, and suppress growth in marine life. Also, many animal feeds have a high fish meal or fish hydrolysate content. In this way, marine toxins can be transferred to land animals, and appear later in meat and dairy products that we consume and concentrate within our bodies.